Among families with kindergarteners, white parents are 3 times less likely to discuss race than parents of color.
75% of white parents never, or almost never talk about race.
First graders placed in cross-racial study groups changed their play habits in a positive way, while third graders placed in similar cross-racial study groups did not.
Researchers speculate there is a “developmental window” when positive crossracial habits are most readily learned.
“The more diverse the junior high school or high school, the more the kids self segregate by race and ethnicity within school, and thus the likelihood that any two kids of different races have a friendship goes down.” — from Even Babies Discriminate: A Nutureshock excerpt by Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman
“The more children know about the seriousness of racial-ethnic oppression and its consequences, the more they will be equipped to contest it in their present and future lives.” – from The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism by Debra Van Ausdale & Joe R. Feagin
“Katz and Kofkin (1997) found that infants are able to nonverbally categorize people by race and gender at six months of age…. and numerous studies show that three- to five-year-olds not only categorize people by race, but express bias based on race.” – from “Children Are Not Colorblind: How Young Children Learn Race” by Erin N. Winkler, Ph.D.
“Over 3 in 10 white millennials believe blacks to be lazier or less hardworking than whites, and a similar number say lack of motivation is a reason why they are less financially well off as a group. Just under a quarter believes blacks are less intelligent…” – from “Millennials are just about as racist as their parents” by Scott Clement